The raspberry tree is a very popular tree in the garden for its thick foliage, the cool shade it provides and also, for some species, its fruits: raspberries. White raspberry, black raspberry and plane raspberry are the most common, and their maintenance is easy. raspberries grow on trees.
What is the name of the tree that gives raspberries?
raspberry trees should not be confused with brambles (Rubus), woody plants of the Rosaceae family, whose hedge fruits are similar in appearance and taste, and commonly called raspberries, by analogy.
What is the name of the raspberry fruit?
The raspberry is the fruit of the raspberry tree, a tree of the Morus genus of the Moraceae family, of which one species, Morus alba, the white raspberry tree, was also widely cultivated for the breeding of silkworms which feed exclusively on its leaves.
Planting the raspberry tree
The planting of the raspberry tree is done in the fall. If the soil is heavy, add some sand and gravel to the bottom of the planting hole.
Cultivation of the raspberry tree
All soils are suitable, but the raspberry tree has a preference for light, sandy, well-drained soil.
Sun, sheltered from cold winds in winter.
Flowering and fruiting
The raspberry blooms in April or May. Its flowers (male or female) are small, light green, grouped in short spikes. Each female flower will give a fruit, in the form of a small grain. The whole of the grains constitute what we call the raspberry, which matures in June or July, according to the regions.
Maintenance of the raspberry tree
The raspberry tree is a water-hungry tree. The first year, water it copiously, especially in dry weather. Then, the root system, which is very developed, will seek water in depth: you can then do without watering.
A contribution of fertilizer at the time of planting is enough, no need to fertilize afterwards (except if the soil is very poor).
Finally, the raspberry tree is a slow growing tree that does not require pruning. If you wish, you can nevertheless prune it by proceeding as for an apple tree.
As for pests and diseases, watch out for the appearance of mealy bugs.
Multiply the raspberry by root cuttings
When to take root cuttings?
In the fall, in November,
Root segment preparation:
– Select one or more large roots.
– Cut them in segments of a few centimeters.
Preparation of the substrate and the cutting:
– Fill a tray or pot with sand.
– Arrange the root segments.
– Cover with a mixture of potting soil / peat of about 1 inch
– And place in a frame….
– Root development occurs during winter.
– Transplant in spring, early March.
– Depending on the variety of raspberries, the harvest is often spread over 1 month, during the summer.
– For the earliest the raspberry harvest is done in July and
– Until September for the later ones.
Preserving raspberries after harvest?
– The best way to preserve your harvest of unprocessed raspberries is to freeze them. The fruit is generally well preserved, be careful that the bag is not too hectic in the freezer otherwise you will find some of the raspberries damaged. It is necessary to know that the freezing impacts a little the qualities of health in particular the vitamin C which, if it does not disappear, decreases largely.
– To make jams and jelly. Obviously here, the fruit is mixed with sugar, but it is the way to enjoy raspberries until the next harvest.
– Make juice or coulis, you can also freeze the coulis it’s a good way to preserve the product without adding sugar. It will be possible to reuse it in a pastry recipe, in a dessert…!
Diseases and parasites
Aphids settle on the underside of the leaves, the leaves become deformed and change color. Fruits can be covered with honeydew, unpleasant and difficult to remove from raspberries without damaging them.
Aphids treatments: When you say aphids, you say ants! They raise the insect to recover the honeydew.
– The glue is then a good means, even if it is a preventive treatment to be done quickly in season and to be done again after the rains.
– The black soap, when the shrub is affected, spray a mixture of water with 10% of basic soap (without additives).
– Nettle and comfrey purin are natural and totally organic preparations, obtained by macerating leaves in water (1 kilo for 10 liters). The purins are used diluted (see links). They are both very effective.
The raspberry worm
Byturus tomentosus is the scientific name of the raspberry worm. It is the larvae of this beetle that attack the raspberry tree and brambles in general. To access the pollen the adult beetles gnaw on the flower buds. We can then see the damage on the fruits which will not reach maturity or will be badly formed.
Treatments for raspberry worms: Tansy slurry. Tansy is a plant that has natural insecticidal properties. By producing a purin, and by spraying it as a preventive and/or as a treatment, we can easily keep the insect away from the fruit tree. Tansy is also effective against aphids.
Cryptogamic diseases (fungus)
This disease is generally caused by several fungi. In the case of the raspberry tree as well as the Franchise tree, the leaves turn brown and then the fruits wilt.
Organic treatment: Copper-based treatments are effective. Nettle manure and infusions based on garlic or onions are also effective.
How to treat: Spray once and again 15 days later.
This cryptogamic disease is commonly called grey rot. Generally it attacks the flower buds or the fruits. A whitish down may appear, it is responsible for the “smothering of the buds” which fall. The fruits dry up, wilt and fall.
Organic treatment: Sulfur-based treatments are effective. Horsetail decoction is also effective.
How to treat: Spray, then repeat every 15 days for 1 month, at least 3 treatments.
This disease appears mostly in summer and autumn. It affects fruit trees but also other species in the garden. A white down appears at the end of the branch and on the leaves and fruits. The disease is often supported by a period of humidity and heat.
Organic treatment: Sulfur-based treatments are effective or a Rumex root-based treatment.
How to treat: Spray all plants, above and below the leaves.